YouTube and the Classroom

Peter Drucker, author of Managing the Future observed: “We live in a very turbulent time, not because there is so much change, but because it moves in so many different directions.” (Drucker, 1993) Effective college and university instructors have to be ableto recognize and run with opportunity to learn, and to constantly refresh the knowledge base.” The complexity of rapidly changing teaching technology makes it a critical objectives for practitioners to learn about the latest tools to enhance presentations in the classroom. YouTube has proven in the last two year to be an emerging technology withstrong potential for enhancing classroom discussions, lectures and presentations.

The following paper discusses the history of YouTube, the impact of YouTube ontoday’s public speaking audience, and the use of YouTube to enhance public speaking curriculum. As part of the research 77 undergraduate students taking the introductoryspeech course at Daytona Beach College (DeLand, Florida campus) were surveyed about the use of YouTube technology in the classroom.

History

YouTube, the latest gift/threat, is a free video-sharing Web site that has rapidly become a wildly popular way to upload, share, view and comment onvideo clips. With more than 100 million viewings a day and more than 65,000 videos uploaded daily, the Web portal provides teachers with a growing amount if visual information share with a classroom full of young multimedia enthusiasts. (Dyck, 2007) Based in San Mateo, YouTube is a small privately-funded company. The company was founded by Chad Hurley and Steven Chen. The company raised over $11 million of funding from Sequoia

Capital, the firm who also provided initial venture capital for Google, The founders initially had a contest inviting the posting of videos. The contest got the attention of the masses and Google, Inc. In October 2006, Google acquired the company for 1.65 billion in Google stock.

Since spring of 2006, YouTube has come to hold the leading position in online video with 29% of the U.S. multimedia entertainment market.YouTube videos account for 60% of all videos watched online . . . The site specializes in short, typically two minute, homemade, comic videos created by users. YouTube serves as a quick entertainment break or viewers with broadband computer connections at work or home. (Reuters, 2006)

In June (2006), 2.5 billion videos were watched on YouTube. More than 65,000 videos are now uploaded daily to YouTube. YouTube boasts nearly 20 million unique users per month, according to Nielsen/NetRatings. (Reuters, 2006) Robert Hinderliter, Kansas State University developed an interesting video history of YouTube.com. The segment can be found on the YouTube.com website.

Impact of YouTube in the classroom

“The growing adoption of broadband combined with a dramatic push by content providers to promote online video has helped to pave the way for mainstream audiences to embrace online video viewing. The majority of adult internet users in the United States (57%) report watching or downloading some type of online video content and 19% do so on a typical day. (Madden, 2007). Daytona Beach College students surveyed indicated that a majority of the students watch videos on a weekly basis. College instructors can capitalize on the surge in viewing online videos byincorporating their use in the classroom.

Communication research on using visuals as an enhancement to presentations is supported by early researchers including Aristotle. “Although ancient orators weren’t aware of our currently research on picture memory, they did know the importance of vividness. They knew that audiences were more likely to pay attention to and be persuaded by visual images painted by the speaker. In his Rhetoric (Book III, Chapters 10-11) Aristotle describes the importance of words and graphic metaphors that should “set the scene before our eyes.” He defines graphic as “making your hearers see things.” (Hamilton, 2006)

“Today’s audiences expect presentations to be visually augmented, whether they are communicated in the guise of a lecture, a business report, or a public speech. What’s more, today’s audience expects the speaker to visually augment such presentations with a level of sophistication unheard of even 10 years ago.” (Bryden, 2008)

The use of visuals increases persuasive impact. For example, a University of Minnesota study found that using visuals increases persuasiveness by 43 percent (Simons, 1998). Today’s audiences are accustomed to multimedia events that bombard the senses. They often assume that any formal presentation must be accompanied by some visual element. . . Presenters who used visual aids were also perceived as being more professional, better prepared, and more interesting than those who didn’t use visual aids. One of the easiest ways you can help ensure the success of a speech is to prepare interesting and powerful visual aids. Unfortunately, many speakers either don’t use visual aids or use ones that are overcrowded , outdated or difficult to understand. (Ober, 2006)

“The saying “A picture is worth a thousand words” is usually true. A look at right brain/left brain theory explains why visuals speed listener comprehension. While the left hemisphere of the brain specializes in analytical processing, the right hemisphere specializes in simultaneous processing of information and pays little attention to details. Speakers who use no visual aids or only charts loaded with statistics are asking the listeners’ left brains to do all the work. After a while, even a good left-brain thinker suffers from information overload, begins to make mistakes in reasoning, and loses interest. In computer terminology, “the system shuts down.” The right brain, however can quickly grasp complex ideas presented in graphic form.” (Hamilton, 2006)

“Most people process and retain information best when they receive it in more than one format. Research findings indicate that we remember only about 20 percent of what we hear, but more than 50 percent of what we see and hear. Further we remember about 70 percent of what we see, hear, and actually do. Messages that are reinforced visually and otherwise are often more believable than those that are simply verbalized. As the saying goes, “Seeing is believing.” (O’Hair, 2007) The majority of students surveyed at Daytona Beach College indicated a preference for audio/visual supplements to oral presentations.

YouTube videos can speed comprehension and add interest. Effectively integrateing a YouTube video can assist in audience understanding and comprehension of topics under discussion. YouTube videos can also improve audience memory. Communication research findings indicate that visual images improve listener recall. YouTube videos can decrease your presentation time. An effective use of a YouTube video can help audience members to understanding complex issues and ideas. Utilizing YouTube can also add to a speaker’s credibility. Professional looking visuals can enhance any verbal presentation.

Curriculum Enhancement

“YouTube” allows users to post videos on the site for anyone to view. Most of the material on the side is entertaining or just odd, but some important videos havefound their way onto this site. YouTube is a great source for finding video material for use in speech or as background material. . . Just as with Wikipedia and other sources where the content is not screened for accuracy, the videos you find on YouTube are only as valid as the original source (Bryden, 2008)

All too frequently beginning speakers fail to consider the details of using video in a speech. Simply because they have access to a means of showing video, beginning speakers should consider the following issues:

*Cueing video segment before beginning the presentation
*Checking room lighting, visual distance, and acoustics
*Evaluating the time it takes to introduce, show, and integrate the video segment with the remaining content of the presentation

The value of YouTube technology for public speaking courses falls into three categories: lecture presentations, integrated use in student speeches, and sample speech evaluation.

YouTube has value for enhancing lecture discussions of various public speaking topics and issues. 74% of the students surveyed indicated that they prefer to watch a video during a presentation. Public speaking instructors struggle to find timely examples and illustrations. I recently utilized a speech found on YouTube that was delivered to Columbia University students by Lee Bollinger, the president of the university. President Bollinger gave speech introducing the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on September 24, 2007. I utilized this YouTube speech as a case study to analyze speech ethics. President Bollinger was involved in a number of ethical issues in the selection of a controversial speaker for the university and his use of vitriolic language in his presentation introducing the Iran’s president. My classes enjoyed a lively discussion about speech ethics following his presentation.

YouTube has value for integration in student speeches. Daytona Beach College students were asked: “What is the greatest value of using an internet video during a speech? Summary responses included the following:

*It gives the audience a better visual and can help them relate to the topic.
*It makes the audience more interested.
*Some audiences need visuals to understand the topic.
*It helps you to connect to the audience.
*puts some “umph” into the speech..
*its good for proving arguments.
*can say something better than you can.

Students are required in basic public speaking classes to utilize visuals to enhance the quality of information shared and to capture the attention of their audience. A brief YouTube segment can enhance the quality of a presentation. For example, I recentlylistened to a speech on global warming. The student speaker located a brief segment on YouTube from Al Gore’s well known video “An Inconvenient Truth.” The video segment helped to audience to visual the impact of global warming on our environment.YouTube has video segments on a wide array topics from Affirmative Action to Zoology.

YouTube also has value for sample student speech evaluation. It is challenging for public speaking instructors to located timely sample student speeches. Some publishers provide instructors with DVD/CD speech samples. But these samples become outdated quickly. YouTube has recent speeches delivered by students for online college public speaking courses. Also, YouTube features speeches delivered by many business professionals and educators. For example, last semester my public speaking classes viewed a speech by the Toastmasters International World Champion, Darrin LeCroix. The speech is more than entertaining. The speech provided my students with insight into effective oral delivery.

Bill Gates observed: “The really interesting highway applications will grow out of the participation of tens or hundreds, or millions of people, who will not just consume entertainment and other information, but will create it, too. (Gates, 1995). YouTube is providing educators an opportunity to apply this technology to improve classroom instruction.

Conclusion

The recent Pew Foundation Internet and American Life Project observed: “Online video has been a central feature in a growing discussion about the impact of user-driven “Web 2.0″ technologies. YouTube and other video sharing sites are often held up as powerful examples of both the social and monetary value of applications built around user contributions. And as users have realized the unlocked potential of online video, a new channel of interactive mass communication has started to emerge in daily life.” (Madden, 2007).

YouTube technology can assist both students and educators in developing effective presentations. This technology can also provide college instructors with timely information and examples. Gardner Campbell, a professor of english at the University of Mary Washington concluded: “We’re witnessing not just the now routine Internet phenomenon of major new resources but also massively and unpredictable scaled repositories of public domain materials that are vital information resources for ourselves and our students. As the information abundance spreads, and if we are brave and curious enough to embrace it, we will find our own serendipity fields dramatically expanded. (Campbell, 2007)

Bibliography

Aristotle, Works of Aristotle. (translated by W.R Roberts) London: Oxford University Press, 1971, pp. 663-664.
Campbell, Gardner, “Have You Tried YouTube?” Education World, educationworld.com. May 1, 2007.
Drucker, Peter, Managing the Future. Plume: New York. 1993. p. 351
Dyck, Brenda, “Have You Tried YouTube?” Education World. . educationworld.com May 1, 2007.
Gates, Bill, The Road Ahead. Viking: New York City. 1995., p. 1
Hamilton, Cheryl. Essentials of Public Speaking, 3rd edition. Thomson: Belmont, CA) 2006, p. 185.
Hinderliter, Robert, The History of YouTube. Kansas State University: Manhattan, Kansas. youtube.com. Spring 2007.
Madden, Online Video, Pew/Internet and American Life Project: Washington, D.C., July 25, 1007. p. 1.
Markham, Reed, “YouTube in the Classroom Survey.” Daytona Beach College. November 2007.
Ober, Scot, Contemporary Business Communication, 6th edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. p. 505.
O’Hair, Dan, A Speaker’s Guidebook, third edition. Bedford/St. Martins: Boston. 2007. p. 282.
Reuters, “YouTube Serves Up 100 Million Videos A Day Online. USA Today, June 16, 2006.
Simons, Tad, “Study Shows Just How Much Visuals Increase Persuasiveness,” Presentations Magazine, March 1998, p. 20.

YouTube Marketing For Business Owners

If you have heard of YouTube you will know it is a free online video storage site which lets you view video content for free. More and more business owners are slowly discovering how YouTube marketing is going to benefit their business.

YouTube was founded in 2005 by Chad Hurley, Jawed Karim and Steve Chen who were ex PayPal employees. While at PayPal they saw the power in simplifying a process and giving everyone a solution.

Because YouTube has grown and grown since 2005, you should really be using this in your marketing strategy. In just three months YouTube went from having zero visitors to over four million.

Today the number of visitors continues to grow. Did you know that the average YouTube user will spend between 15 and 25 minutes a day on the site?

Google bought YouTube for $1.65 billion in 2006. You have the power of the world’s biggest search engine teaming up with the biggest online video site. This gives the business owner considerable YouTube marketing leverage.

In February 2011 YouTube had 490 million unique visitors each month from around the world. They accounted can you believe for around 92 billion page views each month. These are incredible figures. It is estimated that people spend around 2.9 billion hours each month on YouTube.

YouTube grew bigger than sites such as Craigslist, eBay, MySpace and Blogger.com. A diverse selection of content is streamed from YouTube including concerts, TV clips, movies etc.

In the bad old days however there was no way of sharing video content. The videos took ages to load and tended to be long. You needed some kind of special program to run the videos. This was never a pleasant experience for people and many turned off.

When YouTube came along it changed everything for the better. You could finally embed videos in other websites or watch the video in your chosen browser. Gone were the days of slow loading video and jerky footage. We could finally watch in style and a pleasurable experience for all was had.

What about the quality of YouTube video. The picture and sound quality is down to the creator of the video, but the general playback quality of the video on YouTube is very good. There is little lag and the video starts immediately. You can pause, fast forward or rewind the video.

How Does This Apply to Internet Marketing?

Video online is rapidly growing and seems to be getting bigger and bigger. It is time you were creating your own YouTube marketing strategy in order to promote your business or products. Think about how you can best use video in your business.

You can use YouTube advertising to spread your message and drive traffic back to your website. Have you thought of all the sales you could be getting with your YouTube marketing videos?

What about all the subscribers that could come your way from YouTube traffic. The more subscribers can mean more profit for your business. You need to start using online video today.

Internet marketing YouTube traffic will result when you create some videos of your product or service. Video marketing is not expensive and YouTube hosting is free. This is not the case with some other sites however and they could burn a pretty hole in your wallet. Not want you want at all when trying to keep costs down in these tricky economic times.

Are you starting to see why getting involved with YouTube marketing will actually be beneficial to your business?

Generally it is easier to rank a video than say a website or blog. The more people that look at your video on YouTube, the more visitors you will get back to your website. As more people view your video it will move further up the rankings also.

You will need some special YouTube marketing software to create your video content. Obviously you will need some kind of video camera. Yes you can use your smartphone or even one of the small Flip type cameras. However, for better quality a camcorder is always my preference.

If your video becomes popular then you can earn some revenue from this as part of the Google/YouTube revenue program.

Text sales pages into video content

Whenever I am faced with a long sales page I tend to scroll to the end of it pretty quickly. There is just too much to read and most of it is just not interesting enough. It would be much better to use one of the best kept YouTube marketing secrets and that is to convert the text sales page into a video sales page.

Moving content engages better with the viewer. Nobody likes to read so much text, but if you have a voice in the background or even a demonstration of the product you are promoting then you are giving out a great visual experience.

People are naturally visual people, having grown up with the cinema and television. We love to watch video content so do not be afraid to create videos.

Video testimonials

Have you ever received feedback in written form for any of your services? If so then go and dig these out because you can turn them into video testimonials. You show the text on screen and speak out loud the testimonial. This could be added of course to your video sales page.

Video articles

Do you publish articles or any kind of written content? Again this is a great candidate for YouTube marketing video content. Turn those dry text articles into video articles and get them loaded up onto YouTube.

Presentations

Ever given a presentation to an audience? Well now is the time to take the video camera out and film your next one. You can load this footage onto YouTube of course as part of your YouTube advertising strategy, but why not package it up into a product also. You can sell this on your website or on a DVD.

Conclusion

You need to imagine how a YouTube marketing video strategy is going to benefit your business. Do you really want your competitors to get ahead? Try turning those dry text based sales pages or articles into online video content and watch your profits climb.

Wondering How to Make Money With YouTube?

Anyone passionate about video creating and producing unique content can make money with YouTube. To do this, you do not need to have a hit soundtrack like Justin Bieber or Psy of Gangnam Style fame.

There are many other ways to make money with YouTube. Although it is quite possible to make profits in this way, you must realize that it is not a ‘get rich quick scheme’.

It takes patience and diligent effort to start making the income that you desire. This is a business opportunity for those who are passionate about making videos and are willing to work hard over a long period. In this article, I will discuss the steps you can take to increase your profits on YouTube.

6 Ways to Make Money with YouTube

1. Create a YouTube Account

Creating a YouTube account is very simple. All you need is a Gmail account. If you already have a Gmail account then you are set to start but I will advise that you create a new Gmail account just for your YouTube account. Getting a You Tube account is the first step to generating income in this niche.

2. Create Quality and Exceptional Content

The buzz statement for success on YouTube is, Content is King. The content you provide is the key to make money with YouTube. Before you start your YouTube Channel, you should know what content you are going to provide. Your content could be video tutorials, gadgets, sketch, talk show or even comedy.

3. Be original

YouTube is very particular about copyright laws. Even if you are using a soundtrack that does not belong to you as a background sound, make sure you have the rights to use it.

This is important because the only rule that makes you eligible to make profits with YouTube is, ownership of all necessary rights to all the materials used commercially, even if you are a third-party.

4. Work Patiently and Make Profits

Patience is required if you must make money with YouTube. YouTube pays you $2 per 1000 views, so to make more money, you need to have great and unique content that will attract large views. Before you become popular with the YouTube community, you need to have a lot of good videos.

Some people make phenomenal videos that catch on quickly but the majority has to work patiently and assiduously to make money with YouTube. The best thing about making money on YouTube is that when the money starts trickling in, it never stops.

5. Link your YouTube Account

The purpose of making YouTube videos is to get it out to as many people as possible. To achieve that, you can link your YouTube account to your Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest accounts. You can use the ever-growing social media to promote your videos.

6. Use Simple Equipment

You do not need very heavy video creation and editing equipment to make money with YouTube. Most computers come with simple video editing software which you can use. You can also use natural light as your source of light but a halogen lamp is better and it won’t cost you more than $15.

The steps listed above can help you make money with YouTube if you adhere to them. You can create your You Tube account today and start to make money with YouTube.